Indices, trends and indicators

PECBMS common bird species indices, trends and indicators are regularly published on the website.


Brochures and leaflets

We regularly publish our results in brochures or in leaflets.


Best Practice Guide

Valuable advice on how to plan a monitoring scheme can be found in the Best Practice Guide. This rather thin book has been written by a group of co-authors and can give to reader various information and examples in several case studies useful for setting up a sustainable and well organised monitoring scheme.

You can download an electronic version of the Best Practice Guide (14 MB).


List of scientific papers using the PECBMS results

Both, C., Van Turnhout, C. A. M., Bijlsma, R. G., Siepel, H., Van Strien, A. J. and Foppen, R. P. B. (2010): Avian population consequences of climate change are most severe for long-distance migrants in seasonal habitats. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 277: 1259-1266 (DOI:10.1098/rspb.2009.1525). PDF

Butchart, S. H. M., Walpole, M., Collen, B., van Strien, A., Scharlemann, J. P. W., Almond, R. E. A., Baillie, J. E. M., Bomhard, B., Brown, C., Bruno, J., Carpenter, K., Carr, G. M., Chanson, J., Chenery, A.M., Csirke, J., Davidson, N.C., Dentener, F., Foster, M., Galli, A., Galloway, J.N., Genovesi P., Gregory, R.D., Hockings, M., Kapos, V., Lamarque, J.-F., Leverington, F., Loh, J., McGeoch, M.A., McRae, L., Minasyan, A., Hernández Morcillo, M., Oldfield, T.E.E., Pauly, D., Quader, S. Revenga, C., Sauer, J.R., Skolnik, B., Spear, D., Stanwell-Smith, D., Stuart, S.N., Symes, A., Tierney, M., Tyrrell, T.D., Vié, J.-C., Watson, R. (2010). Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science 328 (5982): 1164-1168 (DOI: 10.1126/science.1187512). PDF + Supporting Online Material

Butler, S.J., Boccaccio, L., Gregory, R.D., Vorisek, P., Norris, K. (2010): Quantifying the impact of land-use change to European farmland bird populations. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 137 (2010) 348-357. PDF

Collen, B., Loh, J., Whitmee, S., McRae, L., Amin, R., Baillie, J.E.M. (2009): Monitoring Change in Vertebrate Abundance: the Living Planet Index. Conservation Biology 23 (2): 317-327. PDF

Gamero, A. et al. (2017): Tracking Progress Toward EU Biodiversity Strategy Targets: EU Policy Effects in Preserving its Common Farmland Birds. Conservation Letters, doi:10.1111/conl.12292. PDF

Gregory, R. D., van Strien, A. J., Vorisek, P., Gmelig Meyling, A. W., Noble, D.G., Foppen, R.P.B. et Gibbons, D.W. (2005): Developing indicators for European birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 360: 269-288. PDF

Gregory, R. D., van Strien, A. (2010): Wild bird indicators: using composite population trends of birds as measures of environmental health. Ornithological Science 9 (1): 3-22. PDF

Gregory, R. D., Vorisek, P., Van Strien, A., Gmelig Meyling, A.W., Jiguet, F., Fornasari, L., Reif, J. , Chylarecki, P., Burfield, I.J. (2007): Population trends of widespread woodland birds in EuropeIbis 149 (Suppl. 2): 78-97. PDF

Gregory, R. D., Vorisek, P., Noble, D. G., Van Strien, A., Klvaňová, A., Eaton, M., Meyling A. W. G., Joys, A., Foppen, R.P.B., Burfield, I.J. (2008): The generation and use of bird population indicators in Europe. Bird Conservation International 18: S223-S244 (DOI: 10.1017/S0959270908000312). PDF

Gregory R.D., Willis S.G., Jiguet F., Voříšek P., Klvaňová A., van Strien, A., Huntley, B., Collingham, Y.C., Couvet, D., Green, R.E. (2009) An Indicator of the Impact of Climatic Change on European Bird Populations. PLoS ONE 4(3): e4678 (DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0004678). PDF

Gregory R.D., Škorpilová J., Voříšek P., Butler S. (2019) An analysis of trends, uncertainty and species selection shows contrasting trends of widespread forest and farmland birds in EuropeEcological Indicators 103: 676-687

Heldbjerg, H., Fox, A. D., Lehikoinen, A., Sunde, P., Aunins, A., Balmer, D. E., Calvi, G., Chodkiewicz, T., Chylarecki, P., Escandell, V., Foppen, R., Gamero, A., Hristov, I., Husby, M., Jiguet, F., Kmecl, P., Kålås, J. A., Lewis, L.J., Lindström, Å., Moshøj, C., Nellis, R., Paquet, J-Y., Portolou, D., Ridzon, J., Schmid, H., Škorpilová, J., Szabó, Z. D., Szép, T., Teufelbauer, N., Trautmann, S., van Turnhout, C., Vermouzek, Z., Voříšek, P. & Weiserbs, A. (2019): Contrasting population trends of Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) across Europe. Ornis Fennica 96 PDF

Inger, R., Gregory, R., Duffy, J.P., Stott, I., Voříšek, P. Gaston, K.J. (2015): Common European birds are declining rapidly while less abundant species´ numbers are rising. Ecology Letters 18 (1): 28-36. PDF

Ivits, E., Buchanan, G., Olsvig-Whittaker, L., Cherlet, M. (2011): European Farmland Bird Distribution Explained by Remotely Sensed Phenological Indices. Environmental Modeling and Assessment 16 (4): 385-399 (DOI: 10.1007/s10666-011-9251-9). PDF

Jiguet, F., Gregory, R.D., Devictor, V., Green, R.E, Voříšek, P., Van Strien, A. and Couvet, D. (2009): Population trends of European common birds are predicted by characteristics of their climatic niche. Global Change Biology 16(2): 497-505 (DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01963.x). PDF

Jørgensen, P. S., Böhning-Gaese, K., Thorup, K., Tøttrup, A. P., Chylarecki, P., Jiguet, F., Lehikoinen, A., Noble, D. G., Reif, J., Schmid, H., van Turnhout, C., Burfield, I. J., Foppen, R., Voříšek, P., van Strien, A., Gregory, R. D., Rahbek, C. (2015): Continent-scale global change attribution in European birds – combining annual and decadal time scales. Global Change Biology 22 (2): 530-543(DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13097). PDF

Klvaňová, A., Voříšek, P., Gregory, R.D., van Strien, A., Gmelig Meyling, A. (2009): Wild birds as indicators in Europe: latest results from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS). Avocetta 33: 7-12. PDF

Mace, G.M., Collen, B., Fuller, R.A. and Boakes, E.H. (2010): Population and geographic range dynamics: implications for conservation planning. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (2010) 365: 3743-3751 (DOI:10.1098/rstb.2010.0264). PDF

Mason, L. R., Green, R. E., Howard C., Stephens, P. A., Willis, S. G., Aunins, A., Brotons, L., Chodkiewicz, T., Chylarecki, P., Escandell, V., Foppen, R. P.B., Herrando, S., Husby, M., Jiguet, F., Kålås, J. A., Lindström, Å., Massimino, D., Moshøj, C., Nellis, R., Paquet, J.-Y., Reif, J., Sirkiä, P. M., Szép, T., Tellini Florenzano, G., Teufelbauer, N., Trautmann, S., van Strien, A., van Turnhout, C. A. M., Voříšek, P. & Gregory, R. D. (2019): Population responses of bird populations to climate change on two continents vary with species’ ecological traits but not with direction of change in climate suitability. Climatic Change.

Møller, A. P. (2008): Flight distance and population trends in European breeding birds. Behavioral Ecology 19 (6): 1095-1102 (DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arn103). PDF

Norman, D., Peach, W. J. (2013): Density-dependent survival and recruitment in a long-distance Palaearctic migrant, the Sand Martin Riparia riparia. Ibis 155: 284-296. PDF

Pe´er, G., Dicks, L.V., Visconti, P., Arlettaz, R., Báldi, A., Benton, T.G., Collins, S., Dieterich, M., Gregory, R.D., Hartig, F., Henle, K., Hobson, P.R., Kleijn, D., Neumann, R.K., Robijns, T., Schmidt, J.A., Schwartz, A., Sutherland, W.J., Turbé, A., Wulf, F. and Scott, A.V. (2014): EU agricultural reform fails on biodiversity. Science 344:1090-1092.

Popy, S., Bordignon, L. and Prodon, R. (2010): A weak upward elevational shift in the distributions of breeding birds in the Italian AlpsJournal of Biogeography 37: 57-67.

Scholefield, P., Firbank, L., Butler, S., Norris, K., Jones, L.M., Petit, S. (2011): Modelling the European Farmland Bird Indicator in response to forecast land-use change in Europe. Ecological Indicators 11 (1): 46-51. PDF

Stephens, P.A., Mason, L.R., Green, R.E., Gregory, R.D., Sauer, J.R., Alison, J., Aunins, A., Brotons, L., Butchart, S.H.M., Campedelli, T., Chodkiewicz, T., Chylarecki, P., Crowe, O., Elts, J., Escandell, V., Foppen, R.P.B., Heldbjerg, H., Herrando, S., Husby, M., Jiguet, F., Lehikoinen, A., Lindström, Å., Noble, D.G., Paquet,J.Y., Reif,J., Sattler, T., Szép,T., Teufelbauer, N., Trautmann, S., van Strien, A.J., van Turnhout, C.A.M., Vorisek, P., Willis, S.G. (2016): Consistent response of bird populations to climate change on two continents. Science Vol. 352, Issue: 6281, pages 84 – 87. link to the paper

Vickery, J. A., Ewing, S. R., Smith, K. W., Pain, D. J., Bairlein, F., Škorpilová, J. & Gregory, R. D. (2014): The decline of Afro-Palaearctic migrants and an assessment of potential causes. Ibis 156: 1-22. PDF

Vorisek, P., Gregory, R.D., Van Strien, A.J. & Gmelig Meyling, A. (2008): Population trends of 48 common terrestrial bird species in Europe: results from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme. Revista catalana d’ornitologia 24: 4-14. PDF

Voříšek, P., Jiguet, F., van Strien, A., Škorpilová, J., Klvaňová, A. & Gregory, R.D. (2010): Trends in abundance and biomass of widespread European farmland birds: how much have we lost? BOU Proceedings – Lowland Farmland Birds IIIPDF

Wade, A.S.I., Barov, B., Burfield, I.J., Gregory, R.D., Norris, K., Butler, S.J. (2013): Quantifying the Detrimental Impacts of Land-Use and Management Change on European Forest Bird Populations. PLoS ONE 8 (5): e64552. (DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064552). PDF

Wade A.S.I., Barov B., Burfield I.J., Gregory R.D., Norris K., Vorisek, P., Wu, T., Butler, S.J. (2014): A Niche-Based Framework to Assess Current Monitoring of European Forest Birds and Guide Indicator Species‘ Selection. PLoS ONE9(5): e97217. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0097217. PDF