European wild bird indicators, 2018 update

The Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (PECBMS) presents a set of updated European wild bird indicators for the time period 1980-2016.

The indicators are computed for Europe and its regions (West, North, Central & East and South Europe), and EU, New and Old EU states for common farmland, common forest, and all common birds. Both single European and BioGeo regional species habitat classification are used to assess if each bird species belongs to farmland, forest or other indicator.



The indices of European common birds were used for computation of European indicators. For computation of regional indicators for West, North, Central & East, and South Europe or for EU, New and Old EU states, the regional and EU individual species indices were used, respectively. Although we produce European, EU and regional indices for 170 species, two species (Oenanthe cypriaca and Sylvia melanothorax) haven´t been included in the common bird indicators for Europe, EU and regions since they are endemic species of Cyprus and so not common for the whole of Europe. Consequently only 168 species are included in the common bird indicators. The number of species included in the common farmland bird indicators (39 farmland species) and common forest bird indicators (34 forest species) for Europe and EU remained the same as last year.


The computation procedure of the individual species indices is described in the Methods section, chapter 1. National species indices and trends (computation of national species indices) and chapter 2. Supranational species indices and trends (computation of supranational – European and regional – species indices).

Indicators (multi-species indices) are computed using MSI-tool (R-script) for calculating of Multi-Species Indicators (MSI) and trends in MSIs. The method of the calculation is described in Soldaat et al. (2017). Either European, EU or regional species indices including their standard errors are used as a source data. The smoothed indicators are presented in graphs at the website, and smoothed indicators including their lower and upper confidence limits for the time periods from 1980-onwards and 1990-onwards may be shown, too (if you select the option) and are available for download at the website (see below). Detailed description of production of the indicators is described in the Methods section, chapter 3. Multispecies indicators.

Species habitat classification
Species habitat classification for main habitat types (farmland, forest and other) has been developed using improved procedure accepted at the PEBCMS workshop in Prague in 2005. We used two version of species habitat classification – single European and BioGeo regional species habitat classification. Detailed information including the list of species with their habitat classification is provided in the Methods section, chapter 3, Box Species selection and classification.


In the tables, you can find the set of main European, EU and regional smoothed indicators produced in 2018.
For the complete information on an indicator (graph, list of species and list of countries), tick the check box at the left side of the indicator name in the column Indicator and click on the button Show above the table.
For drawing and comparing graphs for several indicators at once, tick the check boxes at left side of indicator names and choose All data in one graph – the option “yes”.  Click the button Show above the table to confirm and proceed your selection. You can also quickly deselect your choice (Reset).

At each presentation of indicator´s graph, you can check the List of species and their trends as well as the List of countries.
At left side of each indicator graph, the numbers of species in each indicator which are declining (moderately or steeply declining), increasing (moderately or strongly increasing), stable and uncertain are presented.

Download the latest indicators

Set of main indicators for Europe and EU is now freely available for download in Excel sheet (Data provision and co-authorship policies applies).When using the data we would be grateful if you could please acknowledge the data source as: ‚EBCC/BirdLife/RSPB/CSO‘.

We appreciate you help us to keep evidence of usage of our results. For this purpose, please fill in the simple registration form after you download the data files.

Download the latest European and EU indicators till 2016.

Please, note that the data is licensed under a Creative Commons license CC BY-NC 4.0 and is governed by applicable copyright law (Creative Commons Legal Code). Creative Commons. January 9, 2008. Retrieved February 22, 2010.

Note: We recommend cautious interpretation of year by year changes in the indicators values and readers should also pay attention to lists of species and countries. For any use of the results presented in this report, we strongly recommend to consult PECBMS coordination unit (